Turkey – General information
779 452 km2
about 68 million inhabitants
The Republic of Turkey is bordered on the west by Greece, Bulgaria and the Mediterranean Sea. In the north Turkey borders on the Black Sea and on the eastern side on Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq and Syria. The Asian part of Turkey with Anatolia and Asia Minor covers an area of about 97% of the country.
The most popular holiday destinations are Izmir, Bodrum, Kemer, Antalya, Belek, Side and Alanya and they are located on the western and southern coast of Turkey.
The national language is Turkish. German is nevertheless very widespread.
There are no vaccination regulations. You should be careful when enjoying uncooked food. Tap water and ice cubes in drinks and ice cream should be avoided. Malaria still occurs in the eastern part of the country. However, the Mediterranean coast of Turkey is malaria free.
Islamic, Christian and Jewish minorities.
CET + 1; March to October: CET + 2.
1 “New Turkish Lira (YTL)” = 100 “New Kurus (YKr)”
All major credit cards such as: Visa, MasterCard, Eurocard, American Express, Diners Club are mostly accepted.
Embassy in Ankara
Germany: Atatürk Bulvari 114, Ankara. Tel. 312/455 51 00, Fax 426 69 59
German citizens only need an identity card or passport if they do not stay in the country for more than three months. Upon entry by car, a valid passport is required because the vehicle is registered in the passport.
Photographing military equipment is strictly prohibited.
1st of January New Year.
April 23 Independence Day. A day dedicated to children.
May 19th Youth and sports festival
August 30th Victory Day: Military parades.
October 29th Day of the Republic
Turkey – Climate
Climate in northern Turkey:
In the north of Turkey there is a pleasant and balanced climate with warm summers and mild winters. However, precipitation often occurs.
Climate in the eastern part of Turkey:
It is raining more in eastern Turkey than in the western part of the Black Sea.
West & amp; South of Turkey:
In the west and south of Turkey, there is a Mediterranean climate with long, hot summers and mild winters. The further you go to the south, the higher the air and water temperature rises. The rainiest days on the Turkish Riviera are the months of November to February. In Antalya, Alanya, Side, Kemer, Belek, Marmaris, Bodrum, Fethiye and Kusadasi you have perfect weather all year round.
Central & amp; East of Turkey:
In central Turkey and in the east you will find hot and dry summers. The winters are snowy and cold here.
Best travel time
Since the coastal areas in the west and south are very hot in July and August, the months of May, June, September and October are the best time to travel. On the Turkish Riviera near Antalya it is mostly pleasant outside of these months.
Turkey – Fauna
Turkey is richly endowed with farm animals. Especially cattle, horses, buffaloes, sheep and goats are found here in excess.
In contrast, the camel population decreased constantly. As a load carrier, he finds hardly any use today.
Everywhere in the country, small game species and wild boar are to be found. Due to intensive hunting, however, stocks are steadily declining.
The brown bear, the wolf, the jackal and the lynx are still found in predators today.
Many species of birds hibernate in Turkey. The Kuscenneti National Park is known as a bird paradise. Pelicans, storks, cormorants, wild ducks and pheasants are found here.
Turkey – Flora
36% of the total area of Turkey is used for agriculture. 26% of the land area is covered by Wälderb.
In eastern Turkey, the flora is the most varied and varied. There are endless wildflowers in the plateaus.
In the steppe regions there are shrubs, coniferous forests and black pines. Thistles and cactus plants can also be found in the dry areas.
In the north of the country and on the Black Sea coast there are plantations with hazelnut, corn and tea.
The south of Turkey is more characterized by fruit and cotton plantations. Here you will also find evergreen hedges, shrubs, oak trees, olive trees and carob trees.
Turkey – History
10,000 BC Chr.
Nomadic tribes explore the land. They immortalize themselves through cave paintings.
3000 BC Chr.
The first permanent settlements are built. Troja is one of the oldest cities from this period.
1500 BC Chr.
Greek tribes found settlements on the Turkish aall; gäis. Trade between the Greek colonies and Greece arises.
500 BC Chr.
The Persians conquer coastal cities on the Mediterranean.
334 BC Chr.
Asia Minor is conquered by Alexander the Great.
around 200 BC Chr.
The Romans conquer the southern coast of Turkey. They take over the economy and the culture of the country. Temples, aqueducts, streets, baths and theaters are built by the Romans.
Byzantium is renamed Constantinople (later: Istanbul). The city becomes the capital of the Roman Empire. The Christian faith is spreading.
11th to 15th century
Islamic Turkic tribes conquer parts of the Eastern Roman Empire. The Ottomans are gaining influence and power.
The Ottoman Empire loses its power through various wars.
During the First World War, the Ottoman Empire is in the Alliance of Germany and Austria. Due to the defeat some areas have to be handed over to the Allies.
Mustafa Kemal (“Atatürk”) organizes the resistance. The occupying powers are defeated.
Atatürk founds the Turkish Republic. Far-reaching reforms are being carried out. Turkey has a cultural view of Western European countries. Atatürk died in 1938.
1939 – 1945
During World War II, Turkey remains neutral.
1960 – 1980
During various military coups, there are always changing power relations.
New elections are being held. This starts a huge economic boom. The tourist boom begins to develop in Turkey as an important economic factor.
The Kurds demand autonomy. This leads to terrorist attacks by the Kurdish Workers’ Party PKK.
The first efforts are being made to join the EU.
In the conflicts in the Middle East, Turkey is the only member of NATO as an important partner.
Turkey – wining and dining
Visitors to Turkey will find a rich variety of vegetables in their dishes. Fresh vegetables are of particular importance in Turkish cuisine. Vegetable dishes are prepared neat or with meat.
Vegetables are also filled with rice and minced meat (dolma) or eaten cold with olive oil. It also offers lamb, veal, beef and chicken. The devout Muslim is not allowed to eat pork.
For breakfast there is tea or thin coffee and sweet pastries or white bread with tomatoes, cucumbers, sheep cheese or yogurt (mixed with Turkish honey).
Mezeler – the appetizers
Visitors coming to Turkey for the first time are surprised by the variety of small dishes. Appetizers are served on a large tray with small plates.
Dolmas are stuffed peppers with rice, currants and pine nuts that are wrapped in grape leaves.
Humus is a spicy paste made from chickpeas.
Cigara boerks are filled with white cheese and parsley. There are also Zuchinipuffer and baked Zuchinibüten.
Doner kebab is the Turkish alternative to the Big Mac. Slices of meat are sliced off the rotating skewer and stuffed with raw onions and lettuce into the pide (a sliced flatbread).
Gözleme (pronounced Gösleme) is a thin pancake that is equivalent to crepes. He is baked on a curved sheet metal. It is then filled with a mixture of sheep’s cheese and parsley.
Lahmacun (pronounced: Lach-mah-dschun) is a mixture of pizza and tortilla. On dough minced meat is thinly spread and spiced with fresh garden herbs.
Ayran is a yoghurt drink diluted with a little water. It is lightly salted and is very refreshing. Ayran is served chilled and quenches the thirst on hot days.
Raki is an alcoholic beverage and is often enjoyed by the Turks. Raki is about 45% pure anise brandy. He is “diluted” with 2/3 of water at the table. It turns milky cloudy on dilution. The Turks also call him “Aslan-süt” (lion’s milk). It is drunk for starters as well as for sweet dessert, fish and meat. The toast is: “Scherefe” (for well-being).
Tea ( ay written and spoken: chai) is drunk on every occasion. You can get it when shopping at the store as well as at the bazaar.
The Turkish coffee is prepared and served in the Cezve (pot with the stem). Coffee powder is boiled with water and sugar at low heat. When the liquid lathers, the kahve is served in small mocha cups. It is served in three different ways: sade (unsweetened), orta (medium or low sugar) and sekerli (sweet).
Appetite – is
Apple juice – elma suyu
Orange – portacal
Orange juice – portakal suyu
Apple tea – elma ayi
Artichoke – enginar
Ayran (A kind of buttermilk) – ayran
Baklava (Sweet Food Variety) – baklava muz
Beer – bira
I am full – doydum
Börek (pasta) – börek
Beans – fasülye
Beans with meat – etli kuru fasülye
Bread – ekmek
Bulgur – bulgur
Bulgur rice – bulgur pilavi
Butter – tere yag
Cacik – cacik
Eating chicken – erkes tavugu
Köig Köfte (raw meatballs) – Köig Köfte
Ice (frozen water) – buz
Ice (no ice cubes) – dondurma
Pea – bezelye
Strawberry – ilek
Food – yemek
Fish – balik
Meat – et
Fresh – tahze
Fruit juice – meyve suyu
Breakfast – kahvalti
Breakfast room – kahvalti salonu
Fork – atal
Roasted peppers – beaver kizartmasi
Stuffed pepper – beaver dolmasi
Filled – dolma
Cooked – haslama
Cooked rice – pilav
Mixed ice cream – karisik dondurma
Drink – i ecek
Grill – Mangal
Rabbit – tavsan
Brain salad – beyin salatasi
Honey – bal
Cheese – peynir
Coffee – kahve
Calf – dana
Potato soup – patates corbasi
Kasar Peynir (A Type of Cheese) – kasar Peynir
Kazan dibi (sweet dish) – kazan dibi
Garlic – sarmisak
Cabbage – lahana
Lettuce – marul salatasi
Cake – pasta
Kitchen – mutfak
Cow – inek
Lamb chops – pirzola
Lemonade – limonata
Lokum (Turkish delight) – lokum
Jam – recel
Menemen – menemen
Mercimek soup – mercimek corbasi
Knife – bicak
Butcher – kasap
Mineral water – maggots suyu
With milk – sütlü
With paprika – biberli
With different – esitli
With sugar – sekerli
Carrot – havu
Shells – midye
Not fresh – bayat
Pasta – makarna
Fruit – meyva
Opener – acacak
–l – yag
Olive – zeytin
Parsley – maydonoz
Peach – seftali
Plum – erik
Leek – prasa
Pure – sade
Turkey – hindi
Faucet – esme
Raki (anise brandy) – raki
Smoke – duman
Ravioli – manti
Beef – sir
Red wine – kirmizi sarap
Salad – salata
Sauer – eksi
Shepherd salad – oban salatasi
Sharp – aci
Tastes good – lezetli
Schnitzel – biftek
Mustard – hardal
Napkin – pe ete
Simit (sesame rings) – simit
Spinach – ispanac
Sweet – tatli
Soup – orba
Tarhana soup – tarhana orbasi
Mug – fincan
Tea – ay
Tea kettle – aydanlik
Dough – hamur
Plate – tobacco
Tomato paste – sal a
Tomato salad – domates salatasi
Drink – i mek
Bird’s head (meat dish) – kusbasi
Watermelon – karpuz
Wine – sarap
White cheese (sheep cheese) – beyaz peynir
White wine – beyaz sarap
Weighing – tartmak
Sausage – sucuk
Yayla soup – yayla orbasi
Onion – so-called