from 10,000 to 3,000 BC Chr.
The settlement of the Nile region takes place. Again and again the Nile overflows its banks and leaves fertile soil behind. People live together in tribes. They organize agriculture together. Favorable climatic conditions and the ability for an organized common life make a high culture grow in Egypt.
Early – about 3,000 to 2,700 BC
In the so-called early or ancient times, the rival tribes of Lower and Upper Egypt meet and unite. Memphis will be the capital of the newly created empire. During this time, the Pharaonic dynasties arise. In the 1st and 2nd dynasties papyrus, hieroglyphs (invention of writing) and calendars (with 365 days) are developed.
The Old Kingdom – approx. 2,700 to 2,200 BC Chr.
In the 3rd to 6th Dynasty, there is a heyday. It is also referred to as the “pyramid age”. In this era, among other things, the three pyramids of Giza are built.
The First Intermediate Period – about 2,200 to 2,000 BC Chr.
The 7th to 11th dynasties are characterized by the decline of the influence of the pharaohs. Riots break up the empire. Thebes becomes the capital of a part of the empire and gains considerably in importance.
about 2,000 to 1,600 BC Chr.
Through Mentuhotep II. The country is reunited. Egypt is experiencing a second heyday (Middle Kingdom, 11th to 14th dynasties). Thebes is no longer a capital, but remains the cultural center. A variety of temples are built but the pharaohs lose their power position.
about 1,600 to 1,500 BC Chr.
The empire breaks down again. Due to internal insecurity, the Hyksos (Asian people) conquer the country. Now begins the Second Intermediate Period (14th to 17th Dynasty).
New Reich – about 1,500 to 1,100 BC Chr.
The country is united. The 18th Dynasty begins. In the New Kingdom (18th to 20th dynasties) Egypt becomes a great power and a cultural heyday begins. During this time, famous pharaohs such as Ramses II, Akhenaten with his wife Nefertiti or Queen Hatshepsut ruled the country. Many temples are built in the Valley of the Kings.
Third intermediate time – approx. 1 100 to 700 BC Chr.
Egypt is split into a northern and a southern empire. The third interim period (21st to 24th dynasties) begins. The land is now ruled by Libyan princes.
Late period – 700 to 332 BC Chr.
From the 25th to the 30th Dynasty there is another heyday. In the meantime, the Persians rule the country, but are expelled again.
332 BC Chr.
The land is conquered by Alexander the Great, he founds Alexandria.
332 to 30 BC Chr.
The Greeks gain a supremacy in Egypt. Cleopatra is trying to found a new empire. She joins Julius Caesar. After Caesar’s murder she lives with his successor Marcus Antonius. These are declared enemies by the Romans. The Romans defeat the Egyptians. Cleopatra commits suicide.
30 v. Chr. To 700 AD
Egypt becomes the Roman province and the granary of Rome. Christianity is becoming more important. Copticism is formed. New monasteries are being built. Monasticism arises.
7th to 16th century
The Arabs conquer Egypt and bring with them the Islamic faith. Islamic tribes fight against the crusades of Christians.
16th to 17th century
The Turks conquer Egypt and it is incorporated into the Ottoman Empire.
1798 – 1805
Napoleon Bonaparte conquers Egypt. A few years later he retires.
1805 to 1849
Under Mohammed Ali Egypt is industrialized.
The Suez Canal is opened.
The British make Egypt the British protectorate.
Egypt is a parliamentary monarchy. In a coup d’état, the king is expelled in 1952.
Egypt becomes a republic.
Egypt blocks the Suez Canal for Israeli shipping traffic. This leads to the six-day war between Israel and Egypt. Israel occupies the Sinai.
Second Aswan Dam is being built. The Nasser reservoir originates from this.
Peace negotiations are being held with Israel, with the result that an agreement is being reached on the return of the Israeli-occupied Sinai Peninsula.
Egypt is expelled from the Arab League because of the peace treaty with Israel. Islamic fundamentalists criticize the policies of Egypt.
President Sadat is being murdered. The successor Mubarak keeps the agreements from the peace treaty with Israel and improves relations with the Arab states.
1992 – 1997
Islamic fundamentalists are attacking civilians with the aim of establishing an Islamic state.
Egypt becomes the main mediator in the Middle East conflict.