For a few epochs in the eventful history of Corsica, its inhabitants brought peaceful times. Since protohistoric times, these had learned to protect themselves from encroachment by being retreated to the mountains – be it by foreign troops, by pirates, or by the Corsican nobility, who exploited the people the worst.
Already 3500 years ago, the natives of Corsica were forced to fortify their settlements. When the Romans arrived on the island, the retreat from the coastal regions did little to help them, the Romans pushed forward into the mountains, defeating every resistance and eradicating half of the Corsicans.
The migration of peoples brought Corsica the most troubled time of its eventful history. In these tumultuous centuries when Vandal, East Gothic, Byzantine and Lombard rulers alternated, the Corsicans once again had to retreat into the interior of the island and develop their communities in the remoteness of the mountains.
Even the transition to papal rule brought no peace to Corsica – on the contrary, the Moors continued their forays and settled at individual points on the island.
The division of Corsica between Genoa and Pisa, which had existed since 1133, contained the seeds of strife. She transferred the clashes between the two Italian cities to the island and split the Corsican into Pisa or Genoa followers.
This was followed by clashes between the camps of the Pisans, Genoese, Corsicans and Papists. The victims were once again the Corsicans themselves. In addition, the increase in the power positions of their own nobility, which tried to collect ever larger numbers of supporters around. Woe to him who was not docile to these clans!
To the horror of the nobility feuds came a Pestepedemie, which swept away large parts of the population.
Comparatively little is known about the culture and way of life of the indigenous people of the island. The oldest buildings in Corsica date back to the fourth millennium BC.
The dolmen and menhirs are witnesses of a death cult, the megalithic culture.
Around 1600 BC, people created menhir statues, huge and primitive human figures made of stone with a height of up to 4 meters.
The simple figures have human facial features and implied garments. Some statues carry weapons.
Around 560 BC, the Greeks founded the city of Alalia on the east coast, the later Aleria. It was not until the Romans broke the Greek commercial rule in 259 BC.
In 1133, the Pope divided the jurisdiction over the six Corsican bishoprics in the same ratio on the two city republics of Pisa and Genoa.
Genoa, however, Pisa’s influence over Corsica and conquered 1187 Bonifacio and 1278 Calvi.
In 1284, the Pisans were defeated in the decisive battle at Meleria.
Until 1729 the Genoese remain the sole rulers of Corsica.
In 1729, the uprising against Genoa breaks out.
In 1736 the Corsicans gave themselves a constitution and called the German adventurer Theodor von Neuhoff king of Corsica. He has to leave the island in the same year.
In 1755, Pascal Paoli was proclaimed general of the Corsican nation. > He makes Corsica an independent state with Corte as its capital.
In 1769, Genoa sold its rights to Corsica to France.
In 1769 the Corsican army was defeated – Corsica became a French province.
On 15 August 1769 Napoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio.
A commission report commissioned by the Paris National Assembly in Corsica recorded a total of 8,760 attacks between 1973 and 1998. That means, on average, an act of violence is perpetrated every day. The targets of violence are mostly institutions and representatives of the French central government. It also destroyed holiday resorts of foreign investors.
The recent history of political quarrels begins in the late 1950s. At that time, the French state tried to eliminate the economic backlog of the island by central economic planning and promoted the agricultural and touristic expansion of the island.
Many Corsicans felt disadvantaged by the nature of their investments. The money disappeared partly in dubious channels. With the repatriation of the French, who returned from Algeria, began the resistance against the Paris government. Even the Algerian returnees, who went to Corsica, received generous financial support to set up farms, while the Corsican peasants ran out of lessons.
At the same time, not only in Corsica, a sense of regionalism developed that deemed the central political control of Paris inappropriate. The authors of most of the attacks were the two rival separatist organizations FLNC-Union of the Combattants and the split-off FLNC of the dissident. As the French prefect Claude Erignac was murdered in February 1998, provoked popular opposition to the ruling power. Tens of thousands took to the streets to demonstrate against the terror of the Corsican separatists. So far, no tourists were injured by the terrorist attacks. However, mainly investors from the mainland still remain on the island, because often shell buildings of hotels and holiday resorts were blown up. Against this background, Corsica is comparatively little developed.